Contact us here
Tech & trend

What is an Ingress Protection (IP) rating and what does it mean?

The IP (Ingress Protection) ratings, outlined in the international standard EN 60529 (British BS EN 60529:1992, European IEC 60509:1989), establish the degree of protection offered by electrical enclosures against intrusion from foreign objects (such as tools or dirt) and moisture. This includes protection against high pressure, solid foreign object, and high pressure water jets.

An Ingress Protection rating (IP) is essential for ensuring that electrical equipment complies with the international standard, protecting it from environmental hazards like water, dust, and debris. This minimizes damage, ensuring safety, and extending equipment lifespan. By providing a standardized measure of protection, IP ratings help users select internationally compliant equipment suitable for their specific application requirements, promoting reliability and regulatory adherence.


How do I read an IP rating code?

The IP code always consists of the letters IP (Ingress Protection) followed by two digits and an optional letter. The two digits and the last letter indicate the classified protection below.

Ingress protection ip ratings explanation


First digit in IP code: Solids protection

The first digit in the IP rating code indicates the level of protection against solid foreign objects and accidental contact with hazardous components, such as electrical conductors. This ensures the enclosure meets safety standards by preventing access to dangerous parts and protecting against dust and debris.


Object size protected against

Effective against




X means no data available to specify a protection rating



Not protected

No protection against contact and ingress of objects



>50mm in diameter

Any large surface of the body
No protection against deliberate contact



>12.5mm in diameter

Fingers or similar objects



>2.5mm in diameter

Tools, thick wires, etc.



>1mm in diameter

Most wires, screws, etc.



Dust protected

Ingress of dust sufficient to cause damage inside the equipment operation
Complete protection against contact



Dust tight

No ingress of dust
Complete protection against contact


Second digit in IP code: Liquids protection

The second digit in the IP rating indicates the degree of protection against water ingress. It distinguishes between resistance to low pressure water jets, high pressure water jets, and water tests, thus ensuring comprehensive safeguarding against water-related hazards.


Object size protected against

Effective against




X means there is no data available to specify a protection rating



Not protected

No protection against water ingress



Dripping water

Vertically falling water drops



Dripping water when tilted < 15º

Vertically falling water drops when enclosure is tilted < 15º



Spraying water

Water sprayed at an angle < 60º from the vertical position



Splashing water

Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction



Water jets

Water projected by a nozzle (6.3mm) against the enclosure from any direction



Powerful water jets

Water projected in powerful jets (12.5mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction



Immersion up to 1m

Ingress of water when temporarily immersed (up to 1m of submersion)



Immersion beyond 1m

Ingress of water when continuously immersed (beyond 1m of submersion)



Powerful high temperature water jets

Close-range, high pressure and high temperature spray downs
*Identified as IPx9 in standard IEC 60529. All tests with the letter ‘K’ are defined by standard ISO 20653


Linear actuators in waterproof test, ingress protection, ip ratings


LINAK® actuators with IP66 and IP69K

Industrial actuators are typically used in environments where they are exposed to both liquids and solid objects. Therefore, all our actuators with aluminum housings are tested to meet ratings IP66 and IP69K, making them extremely versatile in various applications.


Differences between IP66 and IP69K ratings

Actuators with IP66 rating are totally protected from dust ingress and powerful water jets from any direction. This makes these actuators suitable for outdoor use with changing weather conditions.

In case the application requires wash-downs with high-pressure water jets and high temperatures, IP69K is the recommended protection class. This is a common demand in, for example, agricultural machinery, where the actuator is not necessarily shielded or protected. Here the actuator is exposed to dirt, fertilizers and frequent high-pressure washing, typically at the end of a workday in the fields.


  • Protected from total dust ingress
  • Protected from high pressure water jets from any direction


  • Protected from total dust ingress
  • Protected from steam-jet cleaning

This is how we test and determine Ingress Protection at LINAK.

LINAK Actuator Academy Logo

Want to know more about electric actuator technology and actuator components?

Visit the Actuator Academy™ for industrial actuators.



LINAK test brochure

Each and every component in an actuator is subjected to a comprehensive battery of tests at the LINAK test center. Learn more in this folder.

Got a question?

- Our team is ready to assist you with technical information, starting a project and more.

Contact now